Theory of Everything which builds on String Theory is the landmark achievement in Theoretical Physics of the late. Einstein all his life wanted to combine his theory of Gravitation at Macro level with laws of physics at Quantum level. Laws of physics at Quantum level are very different from those at Macro level which lead Einstein to quote the iconic words God doesn’t play dice. Einstein spent almost thirty years trying to discover Unified Theory. Whether Einstein ever said these words is highly debatable but Neil Bohr discovered that at Quantum level i.e. at atomic and sub atomic level there is absolute chaos and no symmetry.
Scientists esp. theoretical physicists struggled to define a theory which would combine laws of physics to give a semblance. There are four forces in nature: gravitational force is the major one which we have read so much about while the other three are the electromagnetic force, the weak force and the strong force. Gravitational Force is on the contrary not a strong force considering you can raise your leg or jump in the air with the whole Earth exerting its force to pull you back. Electromagnetic force is the force which makes our television and mobiles work. When it comes to Electromagnetic force, Nikolai Tesla was the king.
Strong and Weak Forces are the prevalent over sub atomic distances. Strong force is the force which binds nuclei together while the weak force is primarily responsible for radioactive decay and neutrino interactions over a very short distance which is in sub atomic distances.
During the time of Einstein the strong and weak forces were not discovered but it took almost 50 years to theoretically come out with a framework which combined helped explain the discrepancy between the two.
Force Force particle Mass
Strong Gluon 0
Electromagnetic Photon 0
Weak Weak guage bosons 86,97
Gravity Graviton 0
Table from The Elegant Universe, Brian Greene
String Theory and M Theory
Sting theory mathematically proves that the smallest sub atomic particles are strings. These strings move as sources of energies which continuously vibrate as strings.
M Theory also known as Super String Theory encapsulated many string theories to come out with 11 dimensions in this universe.
We live in a three dimensional world with time as the fourth dimension. So now can you believe seven more dimensions that they are so small they are not visible and which we can not see with our eyes.
There are many scientists who have written on this subject, but Brian Greene is the most popular theoretical physicist who has written stellar books and made many documentaries on this subject. His book Elegant Universe was a worldwide bestseller and his documentary Fabric of Cosmos is one of the best science documentaries you might ever watch. He has written many more books and documentaries and they are free available on You Tube.
Well people could could argue that its very difficult to prove it in practical purposes but then Mathematics is truth.
The theory has further led to the formulation of Multiverse Theory. The problem with Big Bang theory is that why did the laws of physics come into force during the time of Big Bang and behave differently before the formulation of Big BANG ? What happened to the universe before Big Bang. Professor Hawking has propounded in one of his lectures that we are in one of the billions of billions of Universes..
Sp Dude what are you saying…This is fantastic knowledge.
Well the concept is very difficult to explain by a scientific layman like myself…why not watch all the fascinating documentaries out there…
Lets watch the Master speak. This is why America is great. This is America…
The land of science and education and this is what Americans should understand. A country known for Science & Technology, a country which attracts people so they can forever change the face of mankind through research…
This is the root of America and what makes it Great…